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Cell Membrane and Transport

Membrane Structure and Function Passive Transport Active Transport More Active Transport/ Miscellaneous Osmosis and Solutions
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What is the cell membrane primarily composed of?

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What is the cell membrane primarily composed of?


Phospholipids


Name the two functions of the cell membrane.

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Name the two functions of the cell membrane.


1. Provides support, protection, gives cell shape.

2. Regulates what enters and leaves the cell.


This is the name given to the cell membrane because of its fluidity and appearance--a lipid bilayer with various things embedded in it.

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This is the name given to the cell membrane because of its fluidity and appearance--a lipid bilayer with various things embedded in it.


Fluid-mosaic model.


This substance embedded in the cell membrane prevents solidification at low temperatures.

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This substance embedded in the cell membrane prevents solidification at low temperatures.


Cholesterol


Which structure serves as an ID tag for the cell?

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Which structure serves as an ID tag for the cell?


The carbohydrate chain attached to the glycoprotein.


This is the simplest form of passive transport.

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This is the simplest form of passive transport.


Diffusion


The movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

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The movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane.


Osmosis


Allows Ca+ through the membrane.

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Allows Ca+ through the membrane.


Ion channel.


A type of passive transport that employs carrier proteins that bind to specific substances, change shape, and release them into the cell.

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A type of passive transport that employs carrier proteins that bind to specific substances, change shape, and release them into the cell.


Facilitated Diffusion.


An ion can move against its concentration gradient using this process.

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An ion can move against its concentration gradient using this process.


Facilitated diffusion.


Energy for active transport is supplied by this molecule.

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Energy for active transport is supplied by this molecule.


ATP.


Movement into a cell by means of a vesicle.

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Movement into a cell by means of a vesicle.


Endocytosis.


How many sodium ion are pumped out of the cell by means of the sodium- potassium pump?

How many potassium ion are pumped in?

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How many sodium ion are pumped out of the cell by means of the sodium- potassium pump?

How many potassium ion are pumped in?


3 sodium

2 potassium


What happens to the phosphate group that is removed from ATP in the sodium-potassium pump?

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What happens to the phosphate group that is removed from ATP in the sodium-potassium pump?


It binds to the carrier protein.


Name the three effects that signal molecules can have on the recieving cell.

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Name the three effects that signal molecules can have on the recieving cell.


1. change in permeability

2. enzyme action

3. second messenger


The process by which substances are released from the cell in vesicles.

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The process by which substances are released from the cell in vesicles.


Exocytosis.


The process by which liquid droplets are brought into the cell.

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The process by which liquid droplets are brought into the cell.


Pinocytosis.


Name a drug that imitates signal molecules.

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Name a drug that imitates signal molecules.


Heroin

Beta blockers


What types of substances are transported in vesicles? Give an example.

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What types of substances are transported in vesicles? Give an example.


Large molecules- polysaccharides and proteins.


What is the role of phosphorylation in the sodium-potassium pump?

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What is the role of phosphorylation in the sodium-potassium pump?


The breaking of the chemical bond on the third phosphate group releases the energy needed to supply the pump. The phosphate group attaches to the carrier protein.


Continuous movement but no overall change.

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Continuous movement but no overall change.


Equilibrium


A cell with shrink in this type of solution.

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A cell with shrink in this type of solution.


Hypertonic.


A cell will swell in this type of environment.

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A cell will swell in this type of environment.


Hypotonic solution.


The name given to the shriveling of a cell.

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The name given to the shriveling of a cell.


Plasmolysis.


Name two adaptations that organisms have to deal with osmosis/ changing environmental conditions.

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Name two adaptations that organisms have to deal with osmosis/ changing environmental conditions.


1. cell wall

2. vacoules

3. contractile vacoules

4. animal cells- able to remove dissolved substances from the cytoplasm.


Describe how the structure of the cell membrane and its components allow it to perform its function(s).

 




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Describe how the structure of the cell membrane and its components allow it to perform its function(s).

 


- flexible and fluid (cholesterol)

- polar outside, non-polar inside

- proteins, specific to substances

- only allows certain things to pass (helps cell to maintain homeostasis and provides protection)

-





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